In the previous article on testing in Golang, titled Testing in Go: First Principles, we looked at what testing looks like in Golang. In this article, we will do a deeper dive in the testing package. More specifically, we will take a look at the different ways we can fail tests in our test suites and when and how we should use these techniques.

Without further ado, let’s take a look under the covers in the testing package.

A short overview of the testing package

The testing package from Golang’s standard library provides support for automated testing of Go packages. It is intended to be used in combination with the go test command. This package in combination with go test expect certain naming conventions that we will cover in another article, but for the purpose of this article we have to know that:

  1. Every test file ends with *_test.go
  2. Every test function has the format TestXxx, where Xxx must not start with a lowercase letter

The testing package exposes two different modes: testing and benchmarking. While what we will be discussing here is transferable to benchmarking as well, we will focus on how to fail our tests in a good way and how to provide meaningful error messages.

Logging with Log and Logf

If we look at the index of T type in the testing package, there’s a list of functions that represent errors or failures:

Quite some options, right? But before we dive into these different functions, let’s look at another one: Logf (docs).

You might be thinking: “I came here to read about signaling test failures, and for some reason, I am reading about logging”. Trust me, there’s a connection here.

Log formats its arguments using default formatting, analogous to Println, while Logf takes one or more arguments: a format string and additional arguments. It formats its arguments according to the format (analogous to Printf). Both these functions save the text in the error log. Compared to Println and Printf, the difference is that Log and Logf save the output to the error log (instead of os.Stdout) and they also add a final newline.

When tests fail or when the -test.v flag is present, the text is printed out. Basically, Log & Logf are the testing package’s Println and Printf with a twist - prints only in verbose mode or when a test fails. A simple example:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
package main

import "testing"

func TestFoo(t *testing.T) {
	t.Logf("Testing Foo")
}

If we would run this using go test there won’t be any output. But, if we run it using the -test.v flag, we’ll see something like this:

$ go test -test.v
=== RUN   TestFoo
--- PASS: TestFoo (0.00s)
    foo_test.go Testing Foo
PASS
ok  	github.com/fteem/testing_in_go	0.006s

As you can see above, the test returns PASS because there was no test that got marked as failed. If we would like to mark a test as failed, we would have to invoke t.Fail() inside the test. Let’s do that:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
package main

import "testing"

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	t.Logf("Testing Foo")
	t.Fail()
}

Now, when we run go test we should see the test marked as a failure:

$ go test
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Testing Foo
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	github.com/fteem/testing_in_go	0.006s

What’s great about this type of logging is that although the test is marked as a failure on line 7, the t.Logf call is on line 6 and the output states that clearly. If we would add any other logging below we would see a separate line for each of the Logf calls:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
package main

import "testing"

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	t.Logf("Testing Foo")
	t.Fail()
	t.Logf("Another log from Foo")
}

And the output of the go test invocation:

$ go test
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Testing Foo
    max_test.go Another log from Foo
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	github.com/fteem/testing_in_go	0.006s

This behaviour is due to the way Logf functions. With every invocation, it adds the log lines to the error log, but it dumps the whole log to STDOUT only when the tests actually fail, by running all of them and seeing if any were marked as failed. That’s why in the above example we see that the failure is marked on line 7, yet all the logs are present (from line 6 and line 8).

So why are Log andLogf` important? Because of all of the next functions that we will explore rely on them to write their outputs to the error log. And log output is essential to showing the failures of the failing tests.

Subscribe

Get notified when I publish something new, hear about my adventures building software products, and get updates on new programming tutorials. Twice a month.

You can also subscribe via RSS.

Signaling test Failure

To be able to illustrate the different type of failing a test in Golang, we will first need to write a small function that we can test. Let’s use a simple function Max that takes a slice of ints and returns the largest integer of them all:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
// max.go
package main

func Max(numbers []int) int {
	var max int

	for _, number := range numbers {
		if number > max {
			max = number
		}
	}

	return max
}

Let’s write a small test function:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
package main

import "testing"

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := 6

	if actual != expected {
		t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
	}
}

The TestMax function defines an input slice of ints, the result of the invocation of Max with the input as argument (called actual) and the expected value of the invocation.

If the expected value does not match the actual result, we want to tell the person (or program) running this test that we received something that we weren’t expecting. We do this by invoking t.Logf with providing a nice explanation for the human.

If you missed it – the expected value here is wrong. It expects 6 while the maximum element of the input slice is 5. That means that this test should fail when we run it:

$ go test
PASS
ok  	github.com/fteem/testing_in_go	0.006s

Huh? Here’s the first thing we have to understand about signaling failures in tests: we actually have to tell the testing package that this is a failed test. And we are the ones to define what failure means - usually, it’s actual != expected, but other times it can be something else. What testing only cares about is recording if there was a test failure or not. There are multiple ways to do this, t.Fail being the easiest one.

Let’s add a call to t.Fail after the t.Logf call:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
package main

import "testing"

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := 6

	if actual != expected {
		t.Fail()
		t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
	}
}

Let’s run it:

$ go test -v
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected 6, got 5
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	github.com/fteem/testing_in_go	0.006s

Boom! Our test failed, as expected. You can notice that the log is now visible, including our call to Logf with our informative error message Expected 6, got 5.

Now that we have our first test failure signaled, let’s look at different ways we can signal test failures.

Delayed vs. immediate failure

Golang’s testing package promotes two types of failures: ones that immediately stop the tests from running and others that register the failure but report it after all tests finish running. To reflect this behaviour, these functions are aptly named: Fail and FailNow.

Let’s explore their behaviour and usage by continuing testing the Max function we already built.

One other test case that we could write is checking that the slice passed as argument is not empty. If it is, we will return -1, otherwise the maximum item we find. Let’s write the new test first:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
package main

import "testing"

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := 5

	if actual != expected {
		t.Fail()
		t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
	}
}

func TestMaxEmptySlice(t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := -1

	if actual != expected {
		t.Fail()
		t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
	}
}

If we run it, without adding any new functionality to the Max function, it will fail:

› go test
--- FAIL: TestMaxEmptySlice (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected -1, got 0
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	_/users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.005s

What we can see here is that the TestMax function is run and it passes, while the TestMaxEmptySlice fails. We achieve that by marking the test as failed using t.Fail(). Let’s add the new functionality to Max which would make the test pass:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
func Max(numbers []int) int {
	if len(numbers) == 0 {
		return -1
	}

	var max int

	for _, number := range numbers {
		if number > max {
			max = number
		}
	}

	return max
}

While the change does not make much sense, for our purpose it will do the trick. Let’s run the test:

› go test
PASS
ok  	_/Users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.004s

Now, if we look into the two things that the Max function does, we could theoretically attach an importance level to both of them. For example, the guard clause which returns -1 when the slice argument is empty has lower importance than the actual algorithm that detects the maximum element of the slice. That means that if someone is expanding that algorithm and it goes wrong we want to be very loud and “stop the world”, as none of the other functionalities is more relevant than that one.

In cases like these, we can use the FailNow() function to mark the failed test and to immediately stop any further execution of the particular test that tests the max detection. Let’s use it in our tests:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
package main

import "testing"

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := 5

	if actual != expected {
		t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
		t.FailNow()
	}
}

func TestMaxEmptySlice(t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := -1

	if actual != expected {
		t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
		t.Fail()
	}
}

Also, we need to make the Max function misbehave. To short-circuit this quickly, let’s make the Max function return -100 so we can see the difference.

If we would run this now, there would not be a difference in how the tests will run, although we use FailNow:

› go test -v
=== RUN   TestMax
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected 5, got -100
=== RUN   TestMaxEmptSlice 
--- FAIL: TestMaxEmptySlice (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected -1, got -100
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	_/Users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.005s

That is because the TestMax function only does one assertion. Let’s rework our tests a bit to use table-driven tests:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
type TestCase struct {
	input    []int
	expected int
}

func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	cases := []TestCase{
		TestCase{
			input:    []int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5},
			expected: 5,
		},
		TestCase{
			input:    []int{-1, -2, -3, -4, -5},
			expected: -1,
		},
		TestCase{
			input:    []int{0},
			expected: 0,
		},
	}

	for _, c := range cases {
		actual := Max(c.input)
		expected := c.expected

		if actual != expected {
			t.Logf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
			t.Fail()
		}
	}
}

What the table-driven tests do is they loop over multiple test cases (often structs with the expected input and output), and they set assertions on them. If we would run the tests now, with using t.Fail() instead of t.FailNow() we should see the following output:

› go test
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected 5, got -100
    max_test.go Expected -1, got -100
    max_test.go Expected 0, got -100
--- FAIL: TestMaxEmptySlice (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected -1, got -100
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	_/Users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.005s

We actually get all failing cases for both tests. Let’s replace the t.Fail() invocation to t.FailNow() in the TestMax function and run the test:

› go test -v
=== RUN   TestMax
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected 5, got -100
=== RUN   TestMaxEmptSlice 
--- FAIL: TestMaxEmptySlice (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected -1, got -100
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	_/Users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.004s

You can see that instead of running each of the test cases and marking them as failures, the test function stopped right after hitting the first case which failed, instead of going through each case before reporting all of the errors.

This is the key difference between the two, t.Fail() and t.FailNow(). By using the latter we are able to stop the tests and communicate with the developer that there’s something really wrong happening quickly. In comparison, imagine if we had to wait for all test cases to complete before we have some sort of output – it would take much longer to get any meaningful output.

Having a clear difference and use cases for Fail and FailNow in mind, let’s look into how we can combine failure reporting (Log and Logf) with failure marking (Fail and FailNow) in a more structured approach.

Subscribe

Get notified when I publish something new, hear about my adventures building software products, and get updates on new programming tutorials. Twice a month.

You can also subscribe via RSS.

Signal & report failures in one go

Understanding the basics and variations of logging and signaling errors is crucial to understand what we will talk about now. If you look at all the tests we wrote so far, although we switched up the approaches by using table-driven tests, two steps were constant:

  1. In all tests we had to check for a mismatch between the expected and the actual values, and
  2. We had to call report (Log) and signal failure (Fail) if there was a mismatch

Luckily, the testing package makes our life a bit easier by implementing functions that combine both, the logging and the test failure. And because there are two ways to signal test failures, there are two functions to do this: Error and Fatal, with their own variants.

Let’s reuse the tests that we wrote above, namely the TestMax and TestMaxEmptySlice functions. If we would like to quickly collapse the invocation of t.FailNow() and t.Log() we can simply use t.Fatal(). We use t.Logf() instead of t.Log() in our test functions but conveniently for us, the testing package also implements a t.Fatalf() function, which is a combination of t.FailNow() + t.Logf().

Let’s see how we can use it in our TestMax test function:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
func TestMax(t *testing.T) {
	cases := []TestCase{
		TestCase{
			input:    []int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5},
			expected: 5,
		},
		TestCase{
			input:    []int{-1, -2, -3, -4, -5},
			expected: -1,
		},
		TestCase{
			input:    []int{0},
			expected: 0,
		},
	}

	for _, c := range cases {
		actual := Max(c.input)
		expected := c.expected

		if actual != expected {
			t.Fatalf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
		}
	}
}

The change is pretty simple. Basically, we keep the log format and content, but instead of passing it to t.Logf() we pass it to t.Fatalf() as an argument, while t.FailNow() can be completely removed. If we run our specs again we will not see any difference in the behaviour or the output in comparison to the previous implementation:

› go test
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected 5, got -100
--- FAIL: TestMaxEmptySlice (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected -1, got -100
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	_/users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.005s

The style of invocation of t.Fatalf() we see here also applies to t.Error() and t.Errorf(). We can make a small change to our TestMaxEmptySlice function and uset.Errorf()instead of a combination oft.Logf()and t.Fail()`:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
func TestMaxEmptySlice t *testing.T) {
	input := []int{}
	actual := Max(input)
	expected := -1

	if actual != expected {
		t.Errorf("Expected %d, got %d", expected, actual)
	}
}

The usage of t.Errorf() is the same as the one of t.Fatalf() in the previous example. As expected, the output and the behaviour of the test function also will not change:

› go test
--- FAIL: TestMax (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected 5, got -100
--- FAIL: TestMaxEmptySlice (0.00s)
    max_test.go Expected -1, got -100
FAIL
exit status 1
FAIL	_/users/Ilija/Documents/testing	0.005s

When to use Error(f) or Fatal(f)

So, we took a look at all the variations of signaling test failures and logging such failures and the behaviour of the respective functions. For those of you wondering when you should use Error or Fatal, I think that’s a very important question that we should explore and find a good answer for.

Now, there’s no hard and fast answer here. In cases like these, we need to look at certain rules or guidelines on when to use these functions. If we look at the composition of these two functions, it would look something like this:

1
2
3
4
* Error()  = Fail()    + Log()
* Errorf() = Fail()    + Logf()
* Fatal()  = FailNow() + Log()
* Fatalf() = FailNow() + Logf()

By looking at the composition of these functions, getting a clearer indication of the intended usage is easier:

If marking the test function as failed, but continuing its execution can/will provide the user (the programmer) more information that can aid them in fixing the failure, it’s better to use Error(f) instead of Fatal(f). If unsure, start with Error(f) and work your way towards a definitive approach. There are multiple examples to this scenario: your test function is to execute multiple queries against a test database and not failing on the error from the first query might give you more debugging information.

In cases, where a test function cannot recover from the failure and continuing its execution is useless/doesn’t make sense, it’s better to use Fatal(f) and stop the further execution. Such cases are errors while loading fixtures or filesystem permission errors.

These are two guidelines you can use to choose what functions to use. Of course, there are exceptions to this so it’s up to us to use good judgement when writing our test functions.

In closing

In this article, we explored a lot of the details around failing tests. We went deep in to understand how failure logging is done using Go’s testing package - although it was unclear at that moment how it is related to failing tests. Then we went on to explore signaling test failures and the different approaches we can take when marking our tests as failed.

We looked in depth what is the difference between Fail and FailNow, and how to apply them better in our tests. In the end, we looked at some neat functions that the testing package has that make our lives a bit simpler. We discussed two different strategies of using the Error and the Fatal functions in our tests.

If you would like to learn more about marking tests as failed in Go, you can check the documentation of the testing package.